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We are happy to announce the availability of our new and improved Blackboard Partner Catalog! We transitioned the Extensions Catalog to now exist solely on our Blackboard Community site. 

 

Why did we create the new Partner Catalog? 

  • To provide an improved experience for our partners and clients
  • To engage with the 15,000+ current members of the Blackboard Community Site 
  • To inform our clients about our partners across our entire portfolio of solutions (not just Blackboard Learn)
  • To enable clients to communicate directly with our partners and facilitate discussion

 

The Partner Catalog features nearly 200 Blackboard partners and their integrations with Blackboard solutions. The catalog is an ecosystem where partners and users may interact in order to get questions answered or simply join in the conversation. This new, more collaborative, and easy-to-use catalog allows you to more easily find and activate integrations in for Blackboard solutions. 

 

The catalog also features an all new directory that allows you to filter through partner integrations by solution or product type. From there you may browse, discover, and learn more about the wide variety of integrations that will help you extend the functionality of the Blackboard solutions you utilize today. For those of you who are that are currently using or exploring Blackboard Learn’s Ultra course view, we incorporated a filter option to search integrations that are Ultra compatible. 

 

Take a moment to browse the Partner Catalog (blackboard.com/partnercatalog). We also encourage you to become a member of the Blackboard Community Site if you are not already. This allows you to engage with various Blackboard Community groups including our partners.  

Have you heard about Google Course Kit?  How about Google Classroom?  Yes! Google has been working hard to help teachers and students to use technology well.  Now it the time you can adopt Google technology in Blackboard Learn through LTI and make it part of any Learn course.

 

Save time grading.

Provide feedback that counts.

Quickly and securely create, analyze, and grade coursework, while helping students learn more effectively.

 

Google Course Kit is now Google Assignments.  In Blackboard it allows you to create Google Classroom Assignments, grade with Google tools, and get the grade sent to the Blackboard Grade Center automatically.  Sweet!

 

Course Assignments is a suite of tools developed by Google that provides integration between Google Drive and learning management systems like Canvas and Blackboard. The following are currently available:

  • Google Assignments: Facilitates the workflow for submitting, reviewing, and grading assignment submissions in native Google format (for example, Docs, Sheets, Slides, Sites, etc.) as well as almost any file type stored in Google Drive (including files produced by connected apps like LucidChart, Draw.io, and others)
  • Google Drive: Allows instructors and students to embed any file stored in Google Drive.

 

Would you like to try it?  Sign up for the Google beta program:

Assignments | Google for Education 

 

What does it look in Original view courses?

google

 

How about in Ultra courses?

 

google

Want to know more?  Take a look.

Create and share coursework with ease

Generate new assignments using Docs and Drive, and provide each student with a unique copy. You can organize coursework by class, date, and student, as well as adapt existing work for new courses. Help prepare students for the workforce by using Google tools chosen by millions of businesses – from small companies to those on the Fortune 500 list.

 

Help students develop authentic work

Generate originality reports using the power of Search. Assignments scans student submissions for matching text on the web, right in your grading interface – no more logging into a different program. And students can run their own reports before submitting to help cite and strengthen their work. Beta users get unlimited free originality reports.

 

Simplify grading and provide rich feedback – all in one place

Pull up frequently used feedback from your comment bank when engaging students with in-line edits and two-way commenting. You can also apply rubrics to keep grading transparent. Assignments makes it easy and secure to accept Docs and Drive files by automatically adjusting permissions to prevent student editing during grading.

 

Provide students with tools that support active learning

G Suite for Education provides capabilities that can help students improve their writing skills, work more efficiently and turn in stronger assignments.

 

Complement your learning management system

Once the beta goes live later this semester, you’ll be able to access Assignments right from the tools menu within your G Suite for Education account. Assignments is also available as a Learning Tools Interoperability (LTI) add-on, so it’s compatible with any learning management system (LMS).

 

Expect high security standards

We’re as serious about security and privacy as you are about engaging your students to learn. We build products that help protect student and teacher privacy, while also providing best-in-class security. We never assume ownership of your data – that belongs to you and your students. Our responsibility is to keep it more secure. And because Assignments was built for education, it meets rigorous compliance standards, including:

 

  • Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act (FERPA)
  • Children’s Online Privacy Protection Act (COPPA)
  • Student Privacy Pledge introduced by the Future of Privacy Forum (FPF) and the Software & Information Industry Association (SIIA)
  • ISO/IEC 27018:2014

Explore more details in our Privacy & Security Center. Also take a look at our contracts under “8.1 Intellectual Property Rights” to see details on your data ownership rights.

 

You can ask questions and find resources on the Google Assignments Help Community system:

 

google assignments

Oracle has changed their approach to supporting older Java releases. Details of Oracle’s updated policies can be found here:

 

https://www.oracle.com/technetwork/java/java-se-support-roadmap.html

 

With the removal of some desktop technologies within Java after version 8, these changes significantly impact users of the Original Experience of Blackboard Collaborate.

 

After December 2020, users without a commercial license agreement with Oracle should remove Java 8 from their desktop in order to protect themselves from security vulnerabilities. Doing so will reduce the functionality in Collaborate Original available for those users. This includes:

 

  • Access to administration functionality in SAS
  • Utilization of the Plan and Publish applications
  • Launching sessions and viewing native recordings on Linux operating systems

 

Launching Original sessions and viewing recordings will continue to be covered with security updates via the Collaborate Launcher on Windows and Mac operating systems.

 

Users of Collaborate Ultra are not impacted by the changes to Oracle’s support of Java.

 

Details are provided below.

 

Collaborate Original use of Java on Desktop Clients

 

For many years, Java was a cutting-edge technology that enabled cross-platform support of desktop applications. Collaborate Original relies on Java Applet technology to administer the system in SAS, and on Java Web Start technology for session launching and native recording playback. These technologies are not present in any version of Java past version 8 and are not available in any of the open-source variants. Java desktop runtimes are also required for utilizing applications such as Plan and Publish.

 

In order to shield many users from the requirement of installing Java on the desktop for general use, Collaborate currently supports the Collaborate Launcher, which bundles the Java runtime for use with Collaborate Original for launching sessions and viewing recordings on Windows and Mac operating systems. The Launcher does not make the runtime available for general use on the desktop, so it cannot enable support for Java Applets for SAS or provide the runtime required for Plan and Publish. (The desktop runtime is also required for session launching and recording playback on Linux.)

 

Oracle has announced that they will stop updating Java 8 for personal use at the end of 2020. Commercial access can be negotiated with Oracle directly to continue to receive support beyond this timeframe. Blackboard has already ensured that the Collaborate Launcher is covered under a bundled commercial license agreement with Oracle so that the Launcher can be distributed with any required security updates. We are unable to extend those security updates to general desktop use.

 

As a result, by January 2021, Collaborate users should remove Java 8 runtimes from their desktop systems, unless they have negotiated a commercial support agreement separately with Oracle. By doing so, users will not be able to manage their users and accounts via SAS, or utilize other Java desktop applications such as Plan or Publish.

 

Collaborate Ultra uses 100% Web Standards

 

For users of Collaborate Ultra, all user access is through web browsers and standard web APIs, including WebRTC for audio, video, and appshare access. Collaborate does not require or install any additional technologies or runtimes that allow for the possibility of any unique security vulnerabilities. To stay up-to-date with security support, users simply need keep their supported web browsers (Chrome, Firefox, Safari, and Edge) up to date.

 

Collaborate Ultra will continue to be unaffected by the licensing and support changes by Oracle, and we strongly recommend clients make plans to transition to Collaborate Ultra and away from Collaborate Original before Oracle drops public support for Java 8 in December 2020.

stolleb

BbWorld 2019 UX Lab

Posted by stolleb Jul 11, 2019

Will you attend BbWorld 2019 in Austin?Don’t forget to stop by the UX Lab to help define what’s next for Blackboard. You’ll find us in the Community LIVE area, near the Exhibit Hall.  

 

Here, you can meet the Design Team and shape the Blackboard products you use. You’ll have opportunities to explore and test designs for upcoming features, share your experiences as an education professional, and give feedback on potential future directions for Blackboard.  

 

Each day offers different research opportunities, including topics like these: 

  • Blackboard Data 
  • Feedback in Ultra (including a possible replacement for Box view!) 
  • Course curriculum structure 
  • Learn integrations 
  • Blackboard Help content 
  • Future Blackboard products and services 

 

We can’t wait to see you! 

 

Not attending BbWorld but still want to explore, test, and provide feedback on Blackboard features and products remotely? Sign up for the Design Research Participant Panel.

What is the largest course you have seen on your system? - please let us now in the comments!

 

weight lossStorage always grows, but here are just a few reasons for instructors and administrators to manage it:

  1. Smaller course copies, exports/imports, backup recoveries are quicker and more reliable
  2. Video delivered through media servers takes less bandwidth and has more features such as captioning, streaming, viewer collaboration.  Students typically use less cellular data when streaming
  3. Old files with inaccurate information do not surface in newer versions of courses through unintended consequences
  4. Performance of Blackboard web servers is improved

 

Much has already been communicated about storage, this is a summary of new and existing resources.

 

Instructors play an important role in keeping storage manageable in Blackboard courses.  Periodically instructors can review old or unlinked files in their own courses.  Here is how old and unused files can be removed:

 

 

Course sizes can be reduced by focus on these areas:

 

1. Video assignments:

Blackboard servers are "web servers" not "media servers" (Back to School webinar).  If possible, video content should be deployed to media servers and services such as Panopto, Kaltura, YouTube, etc.

 

Blackboard support recommendation is to deploy only small files to Blackboard courses, less than 50MB.

 

media

A common practice is to request that students submit video assignments through Blackboard in assignment attachments.  This can quickly add up.  Each student submits a 100MB mp4 video, that's 30 x 100MB, which makes about 3GB.  If more than one assignment is provided or videos are larger, the course becomes very large, very quickly.  Instead, services like Panopto allow for  an assignment link, which collects video content and gives faculty more functionality to comment on the video and process it.

 

Administrators can locate courses with large student video assignments by looking for courses with a large set of protected files. 

 

 

To find protected files navigate to the Admin Tools, go to System Reporting -> Disk Usage.

 

admin

 

Sample report, which identifies courses with large assignment submissions, most often video content.  The image below had the course name and id fields removed for privacy.

 

files

 

2. Course copy problems:

Course copies can sometimes generate nested folders or carry over files, which are no longer needed in the course.  Typically instructors are the appropriate authorities on deciding if a file can be removed from course storage.  It is possible to identify, which files are no longer linked or used in the course, but there may be exceptions why instructors keep files in the content system.

 

A related bug: #49579 (Nested Imported Content Folder Occurs when GUI copying from SIS created course into existing SIS courses) Issue Description: When performing a GUI based copy from an SIS created Course shell into an existing SIS created Course shell, a nested ImportedContent folder condition occurs.

This video can help instructors review their courses and remove files, which are no longer needed.

 

Administrators can locate courses with large set of files, that could indicate the course copy problem. 

 

search

 

A sample report identifying large courses due to files uploaded by the instructor:

files

 

To reduce the course storage size of Course Files, instructors can remove files no longer needed or move their video content to a media service.

 

3. Additional resources

Recorded Sessions of Previously Held Webinars about Storage

 

 

Blackboard blog about storage in the Learn system: https://community.blackboard.com/groups/behindmanagedhosting/blog

What’s happening?   

As changes in web technology mature and evolve we are constantly looking at ways to adopt new technologies that can improve the experience for our users.  

 

When we first released Collaborate with the Ultra experience, we adopted technologies that brought to market HD audio and video sharing for meetings and sessions directly in your web browser without plugin downloads.  All you needed to do was click the link, enter your name, and voila!  You were in a Collaborate Ultra session.  With the release of the Blackboard and Blackboard Instructor apps we integrated Collaborate with the Ultra experience directly into the apps to allow users to join Collaborate sessions on the go, anywhere, anytime.  

 

And earlier this year we started beta testing an all new mobile experience that allowed users to join Collaborate Ultra sessions directly from their mobile device’s browsers.   This change allowed users to join sessions without needing to download a mobile app.  

 

Joining a Collaborate session on mobileMobile browser experience for Collaborate Ultra

 

We’ve received a tremendous amount of feedback about the beta that’s helped us refine the experience over the past few months and are now looking to make the web experience the default experience while joining a Collaborate Ultra session on mobile devices.  

 

What does this mean for my institution, students, and faculty? 

It means:  

  • Additional features are available to mobile users (e.g. polling and moderator capabilities)  
  • Consistent user experience for users moving between their desktop and mobile devices  
  • New features are available at the same time for desktop and mobile users  
  • The mobile apps will not be needed to join Collaborate Ultra sessions  

 

Polling using the mobile browser experienceChat using the mobile browser experience 

 


When’s this happening?
  

Today, you can continue to access Collaborate sessions from the Blackboard and Blackboard Instructor apps and try out the beta mobile browser experience by joining any session using Safari (on iOS) or Chrome (on Android) while on your mobile device.    

 

Note:  If you're not seeing the join from browser option make sure you're opening the session in a full web browser Safari (on iOS) or Chrome (on Android).  When opening a session from within another app (e.g. Slack) the join from browser option is not available.  You'll need to copy / "open with" the session in the web browser

 

In June, we’ll be making the mobile browser experience more prominent when users try to join from their mobile device.  Users joining from a link will still be able to open a session in the Blackboard and Blackboard Instructor apps and sessions accessed from Learn will still be launched from the Blackboard and Blackboard Instructor apps. 

 

 

Updated mobile browser session joining coming in June 

 

In July, we’re targeting an update that will make the mobile browser the default experience when joining sessions on your mobile device.  The mobile apps will continue to display any existing or newly created Collaborate sessions from within courses, but when a user tries to access the session, they will be redirected to their devices mobile browser to join the session.  

 

If you have any questions or comments, please let us know! 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

 

Update July 18th, 2019

Hi everyone, 

 

A quick update on the upcoming Collaborate changes for mobile.  On July 22nd we're planning a set of updates to Collaborate and our mobile apps that will transition the mobile experience from the Blackboard and Blackboard Instructor mobile apps to mobile browsers.

 

This video demonstrates the experience changes for users accessing a Collaborate session from within a Learn course.  

 

 

Please note: Users will need to have the latest version of the app installed on their devices to use the new experience.  Users on older versions of the mobile apps will continue to be able to access sessions from the app for some period.

 

 

 

If you have any questions let us know!

 

Thanks,

 

- Dan

 

 

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

 

Update July 22nd, 2019

Hi everyone, 

 

The updates to Collaborate and the mobile apps are now available in all regions.  If you have any further questions please let us know.

 

Thanks,

 

- Dan

lt0079872

Designers Resource Outpost

Posted by lt0079872 May 6, 2019

I would very much like to start a repository/outpost of design ideas for folks to try out/recommend/review, etc.

 

Da Button Factory: web button maker  - An incredibly simple way to make custom buttons!

 

https://www.canva.com/ - An amazing free resource, but can be affordably scaled to meet much of your design and publishing needs. A LOT of free content, images, templates, all downloadable.

 

Odincons 1.0 by Nhat Anh | Dribbble | Dribbble - This is 100% free shape icons

 

Icons - Material Design  - "Material icons are delightful, beautifully crafted symbols for common actions and items. Download on desktop to use them in your digital products for Android, iOS, and web."

 

Cheatsheet | Font Awesome - "After you're set up on the desktop or in code, quickly copy and paste the glyph, name, or unicode value of any icon."

So I just headed over to the Community area. This came after spending several minutes on the home page typing a plethora of variations into the search engine, with no results to answer my predicament.

 

I began asking my question to you, luminaries, far and wide (no, that's not a fat joke). I began pasting screenshots, workflow issues, and carefully formulating my query as to why Blackboard didn't know what I wanted it to do.

 

I am sincerely glad I went to such lengths, because as I tried to ever-so-thoroughly build my case, I solved my own problem

 

Can I get an amen??

Presentation Slides & Notes:

[BITS] Gamification and Game-Based Learning -- Presentation Slides

 

Questions from the webinar:

 

 

Question: <v John Thompson>What happens if a student ignores the course agreement?

Answer: The agreement changes the button from yellow to green. It is a Mark Review button with CSS. This means that Adaptive Release can be applied. As a result, the Pearson link and Discussion Board are hidden until the agreement is confirmed. See the gif below.

 

Untitled.gif

 

Question: <v Maureen Larsen>Where can we find more information on training about advanced adaptive release and how to use it in the way you suggest?

 

Answer: Maureen, you're right, we should have a deep dive into adaptive release at BbWorld and a good recording. For now, here are some links:

How-to Set Adaptive Release in Blackboard - YouTube

http://www.dartmouth.edu/~blackboard/help/Bb9_1/pdf/adaptive%20release.pdf

Advanced Adaptive Release in Blackboard - YouTube

 

https://help.blackboard.com/Learn/Instructor/Course_Content/Release_Content#two

Ultra: https://help.blackboard.com/Learn/Instructor/Course_Content/Release_Content#ultra_release

 

Question: <v Cris Wildermuth>Many of us are dealing with low budgets. What ideas do you have for low cost or free gamification tools?

<v Cris Wildermuth>Please, please, mention the question on low cost or free tools? Budget is a huge issue for many of us.

Answer: A few of free gamification tools for classroom activities are:

1. Kahoot Quiz for Medical Science - YouTube

2. Quizlet Live Classroom and Learning Game | Quizlet

 

Question: <v Pat Rennie>I'm a beginner. What is the best place to start?

Answer: I would recommend these videos:

1. Gaming can make a better world | Jane McGonigal - YouTube

2. Karl Kaap on Lynda.com: Course 1 | Course 2

Karin Hutchinson, Teaching Complex Topics
https://www.lynda.com/course-tutorials/Gamification-Interactive-Learning/573400-2.html

 

 

Question: <v Debra Mascott>Has anyone seen eLearning Brothers (games can be created in Storyline, Captivate, Lectora).

 

00:54:18.000 --> 00:54:18.900

<v Cris Wildermuth>@Debra, eLearning Brothers is great and offers also free PowerPoint templates that can be gamified, as well as templates for other pricier tools. Camtasia is a one-time purchase and very good.

 

Answer: Free eLearning Stuff - eLearning Brothers

Also free graphics site: https://www.pexels.com/search/students/

 

Question: <v Nagaraj Neerchal>I am very happy to hear your last comment regarding balance. Games may end up focusing too much on the rules rather than learning. (student often do not submit a late HW bcz there is penalty for late submission). your comments?

 

Answer: Negraj, this is a great observation. Late assignments or 2nd try assignments encourage learning and help students to cope with failure. Often they are approved by professors based on personal opinion. Instead, in my game system students earn the permission to turn in late assignments by collecting XP and paying with them.

More about late assignments and the game system for introductory courses here: http://bit.ly/GameCaseStudy

 

Question: <v Thomas Clemons>I teach graduate students of all ages. How do they respond to this type of learning?

Answer: Some courses may need gamification. Especially courses with fewer than 10 students or advanced courses where the excitement of the topics engages everyone. It doesn't mean that gamification cannot be helpful. Gamification allows for creating new habits and encouraging behaviors. You see this in credit card reward point systems, Nike sports tracking, and other adult gamification projects. I think the biggest bang for the buck for universities is generating engagement in large enrollment introductory courses.

 

Here is a book of gamification benefits in business and other areas beyond school:

https://www.amazon.com/Game-Changer-Science-Motivation-Behaviour-ebook/dp/B00I05535E/

 

Question: <v Joanne Mathiasen>Is most of this only available in Bb Ultra?

Answer: All of the features are available in Original courses.

 

Question: <v Manuel Fernandez>Did you address another way to show progress that might not require comparisons between students?

Answer: Manuel, leaderboards should be used cautiously. Comparison between students can be damaging. I wrote up some details about it in the case study for gamification in a STEM course. I'm including a few quotes from that paper below. The bottom line, I let some students see progress of others, their avatars do not show their real name, the leaderboard is called Experience Ranking. It is not necessary to compare students to each other, however, some "player personalities" are motivated by scoring more points than others.

 

Quotes taken from the case study:

ERIC - ED574876 - Application of Gamification in a College STEM Introductory Course: A Case Study, Online Submission, 20…

 

While many studies report benefits of gamification in education and other fields (Dicheva, Dichev, Agre, & Angelova, 2015), Gartner warned in 2012 that 80% of gamification projects would fail in the next two years due to poor understanding of effective design in gamification (Gartner, 2012). The successful studies in education focus on problem-solving skills, exploration, and discovery as project outcomes (Lee & Hammer, 2011;Kapp, 2012;Sitzmann, 2011). Studies that report negative impacts of gamification cite decreases in motivation, empowerment, and satisfaction due to ongoing comparisons between students in leaderboards (Hanus & Fox, 2015). Faiella and Ricciardi (2016)suggest that more work needs to be done to experimentally establish the learning benefits of gamification in education.
Leaderboards help students to make a self-assessment as to the mastery of their own ability and provide a necessary reference point (Hoorens & Van Damme, 2012). When leaderboards provide an overview of the entire class performance,they point to opportunities for upward and downward comparisons (Christy & Fox, 2014). Leaderboards, as motivational tools, may pose a risk for some students by applying too much pressure despite any positive influence of superiority for those on top of such listing (Wells & Skowronski, 2012). Frequent comparison of academic performance on gamification electronic leaderboardsled in some gamified classrooms to lower exam scores and a decrease in motivation(Hanus & Fox, 2015). Further, competition has the potential to diminish performance, cooperation, and problem solving, and to increase cheating (Orosz, Farkas & Roland-Levy, 2013).

Leaderboards may motivate in participation but may decrease intrinsic motivation toward the course objectives. Some learners may be motivated through social context of games to fulfill needs of relatedness, while others may require achievement opportunities to address needs of competence. The goal for practitioners should be to find ways to support all of the basic psychological needs of learners in order to increase motivation and yield the desired outcomes.Stott and Neustaedters (2013) performed an analysis of gamification in education and came up with four concepts that appear to make gamification projects in education more successful. These concepts areas follows:

1.Freedom to fail

2.Rapid feedback

3.Progression

4.Storytelling

Instead of calling a student grade menu “My Grades” in the Blackboard Learn LMS, it was renamed to My Progress. Instead of calling the ranking screen “Leaderboard”, it was called “Experience Ranking”. This screen in the mobile app was accessible through the “Progress” tab, which listed missions completed most recently by students and missions completed most often. This data was displayed on a moving gallery, which promoted the concept of ongoing activity. The leaderboard was further optimized to only display 10 neighboring players with an option to see the top 30 overall players. A full ranking of all players was not available.

 

Webinar recording:

Gamification and Game-Based Learning - Blackboard Innovative Teaching Series BITS - YouTube

 

Screen Shot 2019-04-30 at 1.50.08 PM.png

 

 

Links in slides:

 

Industry Facts - The Entertainment Software Association

Gaming The Classroom – The Art And Science Of GBL: Game Based Learning - e-Learning Infographics

 

What is Gamification? How Does Gamification Work? | Bunchball

 

Full game example:

Bob - Convert to Freeform

 

Other examples:

40+ Gamification Examples in E-Learning #102

http://codecombat.com/

What will you create? | Code.org

 

Time quiz game:

https://www.elucidat.com/showcase/#facial-recognition-quiz

More examples:

https://www.elucidat.com/blog/gamification-in-elearning-examples/

 

More tools:

Gamification: Course Leaderboard ver 2 | Blackboard Community

Blackboard Learn: Adaptive Release - Blackboard Help for Staff - University of Reading

 

Focus on progress:

Carol Dweck: The power of believing that you can improve | TED Talk

 

Gamification in Introduction to Computing at Grand Valley State University

Move over, Mario - Professor invents game to engage students in learning - Grand Valley Magazine

https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Szymon_Machajewski/

http://bit.ly/GameCaseStudy

ERIC - ED575007 - Gamification in Blackboard Learn, Online Submission, 2017-Jul-25

http://bit.ly/GameProjectRG

 

GradeCraft:

GradeCraft – Academic Innovation

 

Lynda.com:

 

Karl Kaap: Gamification of Learning
https://www.lynda.com/Education-Elearning-tutorials/Welcome/573400/615922-4.html


Gamification for Interactive Learning
https://www.lynda.com/Higher-Education-tutorials/Gamification/452750/496233-4.html

Karin Hutchinson, Teaching Complex Topics
https://www.lynda.com/course-tutorials/Gamification-Interactive-Learning/573400-2.html

 

Octalysis:

Hey, teach! Is the force with you? Evaluate how strong is gamification in your course.

https://yukaichou.com/gamification-examples/top-10-education-gamification-examples/#.WvHle1SpnyU

atedxgvsu.pngPlaying games is a very popular activity practiced by young and old. Gamification, as a way to introduce game elements to non-game environments, focuses on tracking activities and providing immersive feedback. Providing such feedback nurtures engagement and growth mindset. Ancient Greeks viewed failure as a life condition affecting good people despite their talents or best intentions. Later meritocracy made it clear: we are the architects of our own misery. Games help us to experience that failure is a part of learning, a precondition for success. In games we feel joy as we escape failure by learning new skills. In contrast to so many areas of life, we seek out failure in games. Games help us to improve our relationship with failure to learn more.

 

TedxGVSU: https://www.tedxgvsu.com/2019-speakers

 

Patent: Educational gamification system and gameful teaching process: https://pdfpiw.uspto.gov/.piw?Docid=1...

Getting Comfortable with Failure and Vulnerability to Facilitate Learning and Innovation in the Game of School: https://scholarworks.gvsu.edu/cisothe...

The Short and Long Game Theory for Academic Courses: https://blog.blackboard.com/the-short...

Gamification in Blackboard Learn: https://eric.ed.gov/?id=ED575007

Gamification Strategies in a Hybrid Exemplary College Course: https://eric.ed.gov/?id=EJ1167287

Application of Gamification in a College STEM Introductory Course: A Case Study: https://eric.ed.gov/?id=ED574876 Entertainment Software Association (ESA) Report: http://www.theesa.com/wp-content/uplo...

 

 

 

tedxgvsu2.jpg

 

TedxGVSU: On well-played games & simulations - YouTube

Article originally published on E-Learn Magazine on March 13, 2018.

 

Teachers and professors are often working hard to guarantee students make the most out of their classes. Universal Design for Learning (UDL) is one way to maximize learning for pupils. By following UDL’s three principles – Recognition, Action & Expression and Engagement – along with a diverse set of practices, there’s a better chance at student success.

 

Have you ever watched a film with subtitles? Even if you haven’t, have you ever thought of how many people benefit from them? Closed captions help many viewers globally to easily follow a storyline and understand dialogue.  Subtitles are often used in the following scenarios: watching a film in a foreign language, for the hard of hearing, to watch a movie quietly so as not to disturb others, used in public spaces where TV is transmitted without sound, among others.

Universal Design for Learning is similar to closed captioning in that it applies the same principle:  it addresses the needs of different types of people. UDL is an approach to curriculum that minimizes barriers and maximizes learning for all students.[i]

 

According to the National Center on Universal Design for Learning, UDL is a set of principles for curriculum development that gives all individuals equal opportunities to learn. It also provides a blueprint for creating instructional goals, methods, materials, and assessments that work for everyone, instead of a one-size-fits all solution. Rather, it is a flexible approach that can be customized and adjusted for individual needs.[ii] It is also closely related to academic effectiveness as UDL empowers excellence in teaching and learning.

 

To go deeper into the meaning of UDL, the Higher Education Opportunity Act (HEOA) provided a definition in 2008, which goes as follows:

 

The term Universal Design for Learning means a scientifically valid framework for guiding educational practice that:

(A) Provides flexibility in the ways information is presented, in the ways students respond or demonstrate knowledge and skills, and in the ways students are engaged; and

(B) Reduces barriers in instruction, provides appropriate accommodations, supports, and challenges, and maintains high achievement expectations for all students, including students with disabilities and students who are limited English proficient.[iii]

 

Why universal? It relates to classes that can be understood by everyone regardless of culture, background, strengths,

needs and interests. Most importantly, the curriculum should provide genuine learning opportunities for every student.

 

Why design? Effective design encourages student engagement and their desire to learn every day.

 

The Three Universal Design for Learning Principles

 

For UDL to work, teachers must put it into practice. That’s where the three Universal Design for Learning Principles come in.

 

1 – Representation: showing information in different ways. Teachers and professors must present content and information to students using multiple types of media, graphics and animation. Highlighting critical features and activating background knowledge is also an important recommendation.

2 – Action & Expression:  allowing students to approach learning tasks and demonstrating what they know in different ways. Teachers and professors must provide students with options to express their knowledge and provide constant feedback and support, according to proficiency level.

3 – Engagement: offering students with learning opportunities that keeps them engaged and sustains their interest long-term. What inspires one student might not inspire another. By providing them with options they can choose what best meets their interests.

 

Putting UDL Principles into Practice

 

When thinking about the different ways to present content to students, technology often plays a big role in grabbing students’ attention. This, unfortunately, involves a level of investment most schools simply cannot afford. However, for James Cressey, assistant professor of education at Framingham State University, in Framingham, United States, gadgets are not always necessary to apply UDL principles, or more specifically, the principle of Representation.

“If students are reading an article, that is great, but that could be a barrier for some of them, because of a visual impairment, or a learning disability. If we can allow an audio format, then the students can listen to that,” Cressey says. “If the technology to do so is not available, a teacher or classmate reading that article out loud to the other student works in the same way”, he adds.

 

The same is true for Engagement. According to Cressey, especially when teaching children, breaking up students into small groups in order to design a learning activity that involves sharing with the rest of the class and to keep students interested in the content, and the use of Lego building blocks or even musical instruments to present class subjects, are some examples of interactive activities that can enable engagement. “In my experience, such activities really got them much more engaged,” Cressey says. “There were some students who told me that they enjoy having a short lecture where the professors are presenting information clearly, but pairing that with something interactive and ‘hands-on,’ with movement and interpersonal skills that provided other means of engagement. But of course, there were other students who preferred the quiet reflective grading activities that they would normally do,” he adds.

In terms of the Action & Expression principle, Cressey says producing a CD, presenting content for parents and friends (and not just classmates), or even going on-air at a local radio station to talk about a subject they learned about in school, are some ideas that can be useful and produce interesting results.

 

The Main Challenge: Finding the Time to Implement New Ideas

Cressey believes that implementing a new approach like UDL on a larger scale is very challenging, especially within a public school system. “Having been a classroom teacher myself, I know that teachers often see trends that come and go because of poor implementation. If a new approach is not introduced well – often with not enough training for teachers – then it is not sustainable overtime,” believes Cressey.

Ongoing coaching and professional development, therefore, is one of the challenges of a UDL high scale implementation. Therefore, using the first year to plan and prepare the best approach is essential.

 

5 Tips When Implementing UDL

  1. Determine goals to help students know what they’re working towards and to stay on track.
  2. Offer students different ways to complete their assignments.
  3. Build flexible workspaces where students can either work individually or engage in group activities.
  4. Provide students with constant feedback on their performance. If possible, on a daily basis.
  5. Allow the use of different mediums, including print, digital and audio materials.[5]


 


[i] U. (2010, January 06). Retrieved January 17, 2018, from https://www.youtube.com/watch?time_continue=9&v=bDvKnY0g6e4.

[ii] What is Universal Design for Learning. (n.d.). Retrieved January 17, 2018, from http://www.udlcenter.org/aboutudl/whatisudl.

[iii] How Has UDL Been Defined? (n.d.). Retrieved January 18, 2018, from http://www.udlcenter.org/aboutudl/udldefined.

[iv] Universal Design for Learning: A Concise Introduction [PDF]. (2011). ACCESS Project, Colorado State University.

[5] CAST, U. F. (n.d.). 5 Examples of Universal Design for Learning in the Classroom. Retrieved January 18, 2018, from https://www.understood.org/en/learning-attention-issues/treatments-approaches/educational-strategies/5-examples-of-universal-design-for-learning-in-the-classroom.

Article originally published on E-Learn Magazine on November 22, 2017.

 

More autonomous learners, capable of developing an active role in educational processes: that’s what student-centered learning is all about. However, there are educators who believe a more teacher-driven method is still the best way to go.

The student-centered learning (SCL) theory sheds a light on a different way to approach day-to-day classroom life –with the learner, not the teacher, at the center of all classes. “In a student-centered class, students don’t depend on their teacher all the time; waiting for instructions, words of approval, correction, advice, or praise,” says Leo Jones in his book The Student-Centered Classroom.[1]

 

Based on psychologist Carl Rogers’ theories such as person-centered approach, which defended that answers to patients’ questions were within the patient and not the therapist, as well as contributions by theorists like Jean Piaget, Lev Vygotsky and Paulo Freire, among others, student-centered learning remains a challenge for both educators and students in the search for better results in the process of absorbing knowledge.[2]

Critics of the traditional learning approach – where the teacher imparts knowledge onto the students who sit quietly and learn – say it’s an authoritarian and hierarchical method,[3]which often promotes memorization without an actual understanding of what’s being taught. When students become the center of the process, they automatically make a connection between new knowledge with what they already know, making classes and class content, much more useful and productive in their lives.

 

According to the research study Overview on Student-Centered Learning in Higher Education in Europe,[4] by the European Student’s Union, the massive student protests against the elitism of universities in 1968 and the need for them to open their doors to all parts of society, also led to the development of the student-centered learning concept. However, educators in the United States have used the terms “teacher-centered” and “student-centered” at least since the 1930s. [5]

 

Teacher vs. Student Centered Learning: What Are the Main Differences?

 

A teacher-centered classroom has many, if not all, of the following characteristics: a teacher who controls the material, the way in which students study and the pace they learn at; the teacher being the most active person in the classroom (be it by lecturing, reading aloud or other activities); students remain seated down for most of the class, taking notes or participating briefly, only when demanded by the teacher; desks are arranged in rows facing the teacher.

In contrast, a student-centered class is much different: students often have the opportunity to lead educational activities; design their projects; participate in debates; desks are arranged in a circle; many learning experiences happen outside of the classroom; travel or other kinds of explorations are arranged; the teaching and learning experience is personalized (and can still take place in a group setting).

 

SCL Around the Globe: Challenges and Results

 

Student-centered learning seems to be far from being a common practice among educators around the world, even having been studied and researched for many years. Actually, there is a considerable amount of resistance to the method, with interesting points of view about it, such as SCL leading to brain overload and preventing learning from being stored in long-term memory.

 

Educator Paul A. Kirschner emphasizes that studies in the past 50 years show how minimally guided instruction is less effective and less efficient, than instructional approaches that do guide students throughout the learning process.[6]However, some experiences do prove that the method can work if applied the right way.

A study published in 2014 by Stanford University, titled Student-Centered Schools: Closing the Opportunity Gap, documented the practices and outcomes of four urban high schools in the United States that prepared their students through SCL, to be successful in college and in their professional careers.

The results were clear: The analysis showed all schools outperformed other educational institutions with similar characteristics in their areas, especially considering African American, Latino, low-income students and English language learners.

 

“The student-centered schools in this study have designed their curriculum purposefully to provide students with not only the kinds of academic skills they need to do college-level academic work, but also the fortitude to persist through challenges and to be successful in their chosen careers as well. Beyond enrolling in college, the quality of students’ high school preparation influences their persistence rate in college,” the study informs. In one of the schools, 97% of students were still enrolled in college in their 4th year, a rate that far exceeds the national average. [7]

 

In Europe, there has been a perception among students, that SCL has been put into practice in recent years. Overall, 90% of surveyed students in the Overview on Student-Centered Learning in Higher Education in Europe believe that, when it comes to the implementation of SCL in higher education institutions, there has been some progress in recent years. Half of them see this progress as slow, and the other half believes that despite action is taking place, SCL still hasn’t been presented to students in a proper way – with all of its characteristics and opportunities.

Latin America has also been dealing with the challenges of this proposed change in classroom dynamics. One of the initiatives that has been encouraged in countries such as Chile, Brazil and Costa Rica, is peer institution (PI), a student-centered learning method developed by the Eric Mazur Group at Harvard University in the ‘90s, which elevates the role of the student as a crucial participant in the educational process.

 

How does it work? Before attending each class, students have to self-study material so that when class time comes around, they can answer “warm-up questions” related to the materials reviewed, in order for the teacher to gage what they’ve learned, and where there might be some gaps about the subject at hand. Afterwards, the following learning process takes place:

 

1. The teacher provides a set of questions to the class

2. Students write down their answers

3. The teacher reviews their responses out loud

4. The teacher then encourages peer discussion on their responses

5. Students answer the same set of questions once again based on their previous group discussion

 

Classes become more interesting because student participation and interaction is demanded, putting them at the “epicenter” of the classroom.

In the article Turning Traditional Education Models Upside Down, published on ReVista – Harvard Review of Latin American in 2012, both of the professors interviewed said PI worked for them, making students more motivated than ever.[8]

 

In Asia, the SCL scenario also seems to be challenging, but with considerable opportunities for growth. In Transforming Teaching and Learning in Asia and the Pacific study, edited by UNESCO Bangkok in 2015,[9]it is suggested that many educators are moving towards a more “learner-centered” methodology: “The most commonly cited are project-based activities, problem and theme-based integrated learning, experiential learning, and activities that involve action research, debate, teamwork, group discussions and presentations.”

 

The Learner-Centered Psychological Principles

 

There are 14 principles defined by the American Psychological Association (APA) that must be considered as the basis for SCL. The focus is on psychological factors that are both related to the learner and the external environment.[10]

 

Cognitive and Metacognitive Factors

 

1 – Nature of the Learning Process

The learning of complex subject matter is most effective when it is an intentional process of constructing meaning from information and experience.

 

2 – Goals of the Learning Process

The successful learner, over time and with support and instructional guidance, can create meaningful, coherent representations of knowledge.

 

3 – Construction of Knowledge

The successful learner can link new information with existing knowledge in meaningful ways.

 

4 –Strategic Thinking

The successful learner can create and use a repertoire of thinking and reasoning strategies to achieve complex learning goals.

 

5 – Thinking About Thinking

Higher order strategies for selecting and monitoring mental operations facilitate creative and critical thinking.

 

6 – Context of Learning

Learning is influenced by environmental factors, including culture, technology, and instructional practices.

 

Motivational and Affective Factors

 

7 – Motivational and Emotional Influences on Learning

What and how much is learned is influenced by motivation. Motivation to learn, in turn, is influenced by the individual’s emotional states, beliefs, interests and goals, and habits of thinking.

 

8 – Intrinsic Motivation to Learn

The learner's creativity, higher order thinking, and natural curiosity all contribute to motivation to learn. Intrinsic motivation is stimulated by tasks of optimal novelty and difficulty, relevant to personal interests, and providing for personal choice and control.

9 – Effects of Motivation on Effort

Acquisition of complex knowledge and skills requires extended learner effort and guided practice. Without learners' motivation to learn, the willingness to exert this effort is unlikely without coercion.

 

Developmental and Social Factors

 

10 – Developmental Influences on Learning

As individuals develop, there are different opportunities and constraints for learning. Learning is most effective when differential development within and across physical, intellectual, emotional, and social domains is taken into account.

 

11 – Social Influences on Learning

Learning is influenced by social interactions, interpersonal relations, and communication with others.

 

Individual Differences Factors

 

12 – Individual Differences in Learning

Learners have different strategies, approaches, and capabilities for learning that are a function of prior experience and heredity.

 

13 – Learning and Diversity

Learning is most effective when differences in learners' linguistic, cultural, and social backgrounds are taken into account.

 

14 – Standards and Assessment

Setting appropriately high and challenging standards and assessing the learner as well as learning progress – including diagnostic, process, and outcome assessment – are integral parts of the learning process.

 


 


[1]Jones, L. (2007). The student-centered classroom. New York: Cambridge University Press.

 

[2]Arnold, K. (2014). Behind the mirror: Reflective listening and its Tain in the work of Carl Rogers. The Humanistic Psychologist,42(4), 354-369. doi:10.1080/08873267.2014.913247

 

[3]Do learner-centred approaches work in every culture? (n.d.). Retrieved September 19, 2017, from https://www.britishcouncil.org/voices-magazine/do-learner-centred-approaches-work-every-culture

 

[4]Todorovski, B., Nordal, E., &Isoski, T. (2015, March). Overview on Student Centred Learning in Higher Education in Europe [PDF]. Brussels: European Students' Union ESU.

 

[5]Concepts, L. (2014, May 07).Student-Centered Learning Definition. Retrieved September 19, 2017, from http://edglossary.org/student-centered-learning/

 

[6]Kirschner, P. A., Sweller, J., & Clark, R. E. (2006). Why Minimal Guidance During Instruction Does Not Work: An Analysis of the Failure of Constructivist, Discovery, Problem-Based, Experiential, and Inquiry-Based Teaching. Educational Psychologist, 41(2), 75-86.doi:10.1207/s15326985ep4102_1

 

[7]Friedlaender, D., Burns, D., Lewis-Charp, H., Cook-Harvey, C., & Darling-Hammond, L. (2014, June). Student-Centered Schools: Closing the Opportunity Gap [PDF]. Stanford, CA: Stanford Center for Opportunity Policy in Education.

 

[8]Student-Centered University Learning. (n.d.). Retrieved September 19, 2017, from https://revista.drclas.harvard.edu/book/student-centered-university-learning

 

[9]Hau-Fai Law, E., & Miura, U. (2015). Transforming Teaching and Learning in Asia and the Pacific [PDF]. Bangkok: United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, UNESCO Bangkok.

 

[10]Learner-Centered Psychological Principles: A Framework for School Reform & Redesign [PDF]. (1997, November). Learner-Centered Principles Work Group for the American Psychological Association's Board of Educational Affairs (BEA).

 

[11]O Método. (2017, May 21). Retrieved September 19, 2017, from https://larmontessori.com/o-metodo/

 

[12]Educação, P. C. (2013, February 06). Portal Educação - Artigo. Retrieved September 19, 2017, from https://www.portaleducacao.com.br/conteudo/artigos/pedagogia/as-contribuicoesteoricas-de-jean-piaget/32647

Article originally published on E-Learn Magazine on November 11, 2016.

 

Web accessibility must ensure that individuals with any type of disability are able to perceive, navigate, interact, learn, communicate, teach, and contribute to the web.  Both the Web and any educational initiatives online should be inclusive for everyone and should promote equal opportunities to access the information and manage contents. 

 

There are many technologies that help mitigate limitations in accordance with the type of disability.

 

Disability

Assistive Technology or Support Tool 

Visual impairments

Screen readers, listening feedback tools, touch interfaces or with Braille system, screen enhancement tools.  

Hearing impairments

Technologies that incorporate visible signals in audio alerts, subtitling, closed captioning, and text-to-speech tools.

Speech impairments

Keyboards, voice synthesizers, syntax systems to form phrases, word and phrase prediction systems, etc.  

Motor impairments

Special keyboards, voice recognition software, ocular movement systems, mouthstick.

Cognitive impairments

Technologies such as alarms and task reminders

 

 

The Web Content Accessibility Guidelines 2.0, (WCAG2.0) organized the guidelines and success criteria around four principles to ensure that the contents and platforms are accessible to any person around the world[1]:

 

  1. Perceivable: the contents and developed technology should not depend on a single form of perception, i.e. the components and contents must be shown in a way that users can understand them – this is in terms of contents.
  2. Operable: navigation and interfaces should be operable. This suggests that users should be able to handle tools and should not be tied to only one direction – all actions should be available to all users. This is in terms of tools.   

 

  1. Understandable: all users should be capable of understanding the contents and how the tools work. This refers to an intuitive and easy-to-use topic, as well as readable and predictive interface. 
  2. Robust: contents should be robust in order to be interpreted, also by assistive technologies. In addition, contents should adapt to the evolution of technologies and continue to be assistive. This refers to the compatibility that a content should have with other types of tools or technologies.  

 

Perspectives for each involved profile

 

Accessibility and the Institution:

 

In many countries, accessibility is a government policy and in many educational institutions around the world, accessibility is an internal policy. However, beyond thinking about the policy, it is necessary to think about the Right to Education. Educational institutions should: 

 

  • Transform campuses in order for them to become accessible. 
  • Evaluate how the social environments are proper spaces where everyone can work, teach, and learn. 
  • Design an action policy that responds to legal and social realities.
  • Educate and train the academic community on the importance of accessibility. This requires time, effort, and strategy.  
  • Raise awareness through general messages saying that everyone can have access to all infrastructures and contents. 
  • Develop alliances with other campuses and create a community around the adoption of accessibility strategies to share experiences and learn from the efforts of others.  
  • Be updated on the possibilities of technology and its evolution to improve processes and initiatives. 

 

 

Accessibility and the teacher: instructors and teachers should undergo training on how accessible technologies work, and how to provide assistance to students with any disability. The inclusion of accessible technologies in the classroom results beneficial to teachers for the following reasons: 

 

  • They pose new educational and teaching challenges.
  • Diversified groups of students allow teachers to improve the learning experiences of all the students in a classroom.    
  • They improve the content and structure of courses through the information obtained by the teacher by creating student profiles.
  • They increase the quality of the education.
  • They create supplementary information.
  • Updating on accessible contents can be fast and easy even throughout all the modules of a course.  

 

 

Accessibility and the student: when technologies are accessible, they become the best allies in leveling the interaction between students with any disability and those without disabilities. Some of the advantages of accessible technologies are: 

 

  • Flexibility in learning that can take place regardless of the time and place.
  • Equal participation in learning processes and pedagological experiences
  • Handling difficult material is avoided thanks to accessible devices. 
  • The possibilities for professional education and work contribution are increased. 
  • Better social practices and relationships with other students. 
  • Experiences and good teaching practices are shared with peers.
  • Promotion of inclusion in other social and educational spaces, forums, debates, seminars, etc.
  • New possibilities of communication among the entire academic community.


 


[1] W3C. Introduction to understanding WCAG 2.0. In: https://www.w3.org/TR/UNDERSTANDING-WCAG20/intro.html#introduction-fourprincs-head. Consulted on: September 8, 2016.

 

Article originally published on E-Learn Magazine on November 15, 2017.

 

By: Gohar Hovhannisyan - Executive Committee Member, European Students’ Union

 

Yerevan, Armenia

 

The concept of student-centered learning (SCL) goes back to 1968 when massive student protests took place against the elitism of universities demanding them to be open for all society.

Political recognition of SCL was gained in 2009 through the Leuven/Louvain-la-Neuve Ministerial Communiqué, where it was stated that student-centered learning requires empowering individual learners, new approaches to teaching and learning, effective support and guidance structures, and a curriculum focused more clearly on the learner in all three cycles. Later on, the importance of SCL and learning-outcomes based learning was reiterated in the Bucharest Ministerial Communiqué in 2012 and the European Commission's Communication on Rethinking Education. In 2015, the Yerevan Ministerial Communiqué encouraged higher education institutions and staff in promoting pedagogical innovation in student-centered learning environments.

The approach of student-centered learning and teaching aims at empowering students to build their own learning experience and provide them with skills to challenge common knowledge. It is also based on the idea that students are not empty vessels waiting to be filled with knowledge, but they are in the driver's seat of their learning experience.

The most important feature of the SCL approach is that it is not limited to a certain methodology but rather a cultural shift of the learning experience. Student-centered learning is based on flexibility and individualization of the learning process, meaning that teaching methods should be adjusted to the individual needs of a diverse student group.

The paradigm shift from teacher-centered toward student-centered learning brings frustration to some academics who assume that the application of SCL diminishes the role of the teacher. However, focusing on empowering students through SCL does not neglect the importance of the teacher, but shows his or her role as a facilitator.

SCL brings more functions to the role of the teacher, who has to facilitate the learning based on a process of constructing knowledge and new understanding, encourage an active approach to learning by doing, and guide students to self-directed learning with students taking increasing responsibility for their learning. This is the process where the student is encouraged to take ownership for his/her own individual learning path.

In order to map out a common understanding of the SCL concept by providing a common comprehensive definition, as well as guidelines and checklists for the implementation of the concept, European Students’ Union (ESU) and Education International (EI) jointly undertook the project Time for Student-Centered Learning (T4SCL), which ran from 2009 to 2010. The project led to the definition of SCL that is now widely used by educational stakeholders and policy-makers. This definition adequately brings together a number of concepts and perceptions, as well as tried and tested methods of SCL. It serves to enhance the positive effect of a SCL approach within higher education, most importantly for individual students who are to use SCL approach best practices in their daily lives (European Students’ Union, 2015).1

At the conference launching the T4SCL project in May 2010, teachers and students examined the theory behind SCL. As a result, a list of nine general principles were outlined, as follows:

 

PRINCIPLE I: SCL Requires an Ongoing Reflexive Process

Part of the underlying philosophy of SCL is that no one context can have one SCL style that can remain applicable through time. The philosophy of SCL is that teachers, students and institutions need to reflect on their teaching, learning and infrastructural systems on an ongoing basis. This way, the student learning experience is continuously improved, and the intended learning outcomes of a given course or program component achieved in a way that stimulates learners' critical thinking and transferable skills.

PRINCIPLE II: SCL Does Not Have a “One-Size-Fits-All” Solution

A key concept underlying SCL is the realization that all higher education institutions are different, as well as all teachers and students. Therefore, SCL is a learning approach that requires learning support structures, which are appropriate to each given context, and teaching and learning styles appropriate to those undertaking them.

PRINCIPLE III: Students Have Different Learning Styles

SCL recognizes that students have different pedagogical needs. Some learn better through trial and error, others learn through practical experience and some by reading literature.

PRINCIPLE IV: Students Have Different Needs and Interests

All students have needs that extend beyond the classroom. Some are interested in cultural activities, others in sports or in representative organizations.

PRINCIPLE V: Choice Is Central to Effective Learning in SCL

Students like to learn different subjects and hence, any offer of study courses/methods within the learning path should involve a reasonable amount of choice.

PRINCIPLE VI: Students Have Different Experiences and Background Knowledge

Learning needs to be adapted to the professional and life experience of each individual. For instance, if students already have considerable experience in using information and communications technology, there is no point in trying to teach them the same thing again; if they already have considerable research skills, perhaps it would be better to help them in theory.

PRINCIPLE VII: Students Should Have Control Over Their Learning

Students should get the opportunity to be involved in the design of courses, curricula and their evaluation. The best way to ensure that learning focuses more on students is by engaging students themselves in shaping their learning.

PRINCIPLE VIII: SCL Is About Enabling Not Telling

By simply imparting (telling) facts and knowledge to students, the initiative, preparation and content comes mainly from the teacher. The SCL approach aims to give students greater responsibility by enabling them to think, process, analyze, synthesize, criticize, apply and solve problems.

PRINCIPLE IX: Learning Needs Cooperation between Students and Staff

It is important that students and staff co-operate to develop a shared understanding of both the challenges experienced in learning, as well as their own challenges as stakeholders within their given institution, jointly proposing solutions that might work for both groups. Such a partnership is central to the SCL philosophy, which sees learning as taking place in a constructive interaction between the two groups.

The need to implement the SCL approach is very much in connection with the changes our world is undergoing. The rapid developments of technologies and infrastructures transform the philosophy of education, which should not merely prepare us for our future life, but should be a meaningful driver in our present life. SCL is that very model that empowers us to shape the world starting on from one’s learning path. 


Sources

1 European Students’ Union. Overview on Student-Centred Learning in Higher Education in Europe. Mar. 2015, www.esu-online.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/07/Overview-on-Student-Centred-Learning-in-Higher-Education-in-Europe.pdf.

For More Information

Time for Student-Centred Learning: http://tinyurl.com/esu-tscl

Peer Assessment of Student-Centred Learning (PASCL): http://tinyurl.com/esu-pascl

About the European Students’ Union

The European Students' Union (ESU) is the umbrella organization of 45 National Unions of Students (NUS) from 38 countries. NUSes are open to all students in their respective country regardless of political persuasion, religion, ethnic or cultural origin, sexual orientation or social standing. Our members are also student-run, autonomous, representative and operate according to democratic principles. The aim of ESU is to represent and promote the educational, social, economic and cultural interests of students at the European level towards all relevant bodies and in particular the European Union, Bologna Follow Up Group, Council of Europe and UNESCO. Through its members, ESU represents around 15 million students in Europe. ESU receives an administrative grant and runs projects funded by the European Commission.

 

 

Column originally published on E-Learn Magazine on October 19, 2017.

 

By Kyoungah Lee, International Programming Coordinator & Advisor, University of Pittsburgh

 

My brother graduated from high school in South Korea and came to the United States to study engineering. In his first English class, he was very excited to receive his first homework assignment, which was to write sentences using a given set of vocabulary words. He confidently looked up the words in an online dictionary and copied the sample sentences he found there, which is, generally, what students do to complete homework in South Korea students mainly copy and paste the necessary material. However, his teacher wrote “no plagiarism” on his paper, so my brother asked me what “plagiarism” meant, as his plagiarism was not intentional. It was then that he realized that the education system was different here.

 

Unfortunately, my brother’s experience is fairly common among international students. Many new international students, in particular from Asia, are not familiar with what constitutes an infraction of academic integrity. Given that students behave rationally based on how they have grown up how they were trained and educated for more than 10 years international students often are not aware that certain actions have negative effects in American institutions due to cultural differences.1 As a result, it is possible to see how one’s perception of plagiarism can be based on historical and cultural assumptions.2

 

Colleges and universities in the United States have increased their efforts to recruit international students, and the number of international students has increased year over year to 1,043,839 in the 2015-2016 academic year. More than 60% of international students come from Asian countries, mostly from China, India, Saudi Arabia, and South Korea.3 The education systems in those countries vary from the American system, and this may cause students to commit unintentional academic misconduct in America by not understanding the negative effects and consequences of their actions.

 

When international students think about academic integrity, they more likely think about cheating during an exam, but not really about proper citation, helping out classmates, or sharing their answers on an assignment or a take-home exam. Copying someone’s homework may not be a big deal in other countries because the role and purpose of homework can be very different, and homework tends not to have a big impact on the final grade. An example of a homework assignment in South Korea would be teachers collecting the students’ class notes, including what teachers wrote on the blackboard, and giving full points homework completion. Another example from a history class would be to write about World War II. In such cases, students tend to copy word for word from Wikipedia or blogs. Teachers spend time writing difficult exam questions in order to differentiate students from one another in the class ranking, rather than spend time carefully checking homework content, because class ranking is what really matters for students to get into a good college. Also, teachers do not warn students about copying homework from the internet or from friends, although they know students will do so because “copying” is not a negative concept in South Korea. Students may submit homework without any citations or references, and they get full points for it. Even though some teachers might not like to see everything copied from an online source, the consequences for doing so are minimal. For instance, teachers may just deduct 5 points off a homework assignment. Due to the competitive study environment in other countries, taking time to do homework might be viewed as wasting time that you could have spent studying for the national exams. Students are not taught about proper citation or APA/MLA format throughout K-12; in contrast, citation is a very important concept that is taught early on in America to prevent plagiarism.

 

Many students in Asian countries are accustomed to a learning style of memorizing concepts and others’ work, and reproducing them. For instance, in English class, I used to memorize paragraphs and was asked to reproduce the exact words in the same order as proof that I studied. We were educated to have strong memorization skills. There was a famous AICPA (American Institute of Certified Public Account) exam prep center in South Korea and many students attended those review sections. Many of those students studied hard and took an AICPA exam in English. After a month, investigators from America flew to Korea because they suspected cheating since a large group of students had the same answers in a writing section. In fact, there was no cheating or dishonesty; students just memorized the same sample answers to the same questions and then wrote them down on the exam. This happens in the writing or speaking portion of the English proficiency tests such as TOEIC and TOEFL, as students tend to memorize answers word by word and reproduce them on exams.

 

Students in other countries may not hesitate to ask another student for class notes and homework assignments. Also, most will not mind sharing them because class notes and homework assignments do not play a big role in determining students’ final grade. Students from other countries tend to be more collectivistic than American students. In Korean culture, if anyone refuses to share, he/she may be viewed as mean and treated as a social outcast. Because we have a competitive study environment and class ranking really matters in South Korea, some students may worry that a friend might get a higher grade using his or her notes, since tests are based on what the teacher said in class. In that case, they will not want to share their class notes, but will still be generous to the other students if they could not take notes because of a family emergency or sickness.

 

This education system has worked well in South Korea to help students learn many subject areas in a short amount of time, and be able to understand concepts well and thoroughly. In fact, this is one of the main factors that has helped transform the country and rapidly grow its economy over the past 60 years. This is not to say that one system is better than the others, but rather, that they are different. International students in America should not be excused just because they are not used to the system, nor should institutions change their policies and expectations - it is the student’s responsibility not to violate any academic codes of conduct. Nevertheless, institutes are responsible for educating students properly to support their needs, as having international students simply come over is not enough for them to succeed academically and to pursue their academic dream. In order to provide proper training, it is helpful for staff and faculty to understand cultural differences in academia and to know how to communicate expectations and policies effectively to international students.

 

Sources

 

1 Thomas, D. A. (2004). How educators can more effectively understand and combat the plagiarism epidemic. Brigham Young University Education & Law Journal, (2), 421–430.

 

2 Duff, A. H., Rogers, D. P., & Harris, M. B. (2006). International Engineering Students--Avoiding Plagiarism through Understanding the Western Academic Context of Scholarship. European Journal Of Engineering Education, 31(6), 673-681.

 

3 Institute of International Education. (2016). "Top 25 Places of Origin of International Students, 2014/15-2015/16." Open Doors Report on International Educational Exchange. Retrieved from http://www.iie.org/opendoors